Вопросы по грамматике немецкого языка
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09.09.2011 23:21:53

gratis umsonst kostenlos

 
Kevin
Hello,

as far as I can see the words gratis, umsonst and kostenlos all mean "for free", and umsonst additionally means "in vain".
Is there another difference between the words? Or can they all be used in the same contexts?

Greetings
Kevin
 
10.09.2011 13:45:41

Re: gratis umsonst kostenlos

 
folletto
 
 
 
 
 
 
Сообщения: 1605
Зарегистрирован: 20.03.2011 15:03:37
Hi Kevin,

my attempt:


gratis:
at no charge
cost free
free
free of charge

umsonst:
for free
for nothing
without success

etwas ist kostenlos aber nicht umsonst = free, but not for nothing


'gratis' and 'kostenlos' are almost synonyms whereas 'umsonst' might have the additional meaning of 'without success' 'for nothing'

HTH

Regards

Wer eine Fremdsprache lernt, zieht den Hut vor einer anderen Nation.
Martin Kessel
 
15.10.2011 09:47:54

Re: gratis umsonst kostenlos

 
DieJoan
 
 
 
 
 
 
Сообщения: 10
Зарегистрирован: 02.10.2011 10:48:34
Hi Kevin
as a native speaker of German, my feeling is that the difference is purely stylistic. It has a lot to do with the language of advertising. If anyone ever cared to research the history of the usage of the three, I'm sure they would find that "kostenlos" is a bit oldfashioned - it is definitely the most German of the three and hence not so popular anymore (today, everything that is fashionable has to be English ;)) "Gratis" is of Latin origin and my dictionary tells me it entered the German language in the 16th century - hence it has a high standard stylistically. "Umsonst" has the connotation "worthless" because of its other meaning that you pointed out yourself, so it suggests that something is free but not very good. As a matter of fact, many shops use the English word "free" now, and under the influence of advertising, teenagers (at least the ones I know ;) are in process of forgetting that "gratis" exists.
I hope that helped!
 
18.10.2011 17:59:23

Re: gratis umsonst kostenlos

 
Kutta
 
 
 
 
 
 
Сообщения: 2
Зарегистрирован: 18.10.2011 17:47:18
folletto писал(а):

'gratis' and 'kostenlos' are almost synonyms whereas 'umsonst' might have the additional meaning of 'without success' 'for nothing'



That's not right. "Umsonst" is used as a synonym with the sense of "kostenlos" only in common speech. The correct translation is "without avail".
 
19.10.2011 12:37:07

Re: gratis umsonst kostenlos

 
folletto
 
 
 
 
 
 
Сообщения: 1605
Зарегистрирован: 20.03.2011 15:03:37
Hi Kutta,


without avail = vergeblich

und hat nichts mit kostenlos zu tun.


z. B. 'vergebliche Liebesmüh' , die ist weder gratis, noch kostenlos - umsonst vielleicht. man hat sich umsonst um etwas bemüht.

Regards

Wer eine Fremdsprache lernt, zieht den Hut vor einer anderen Nation.
Martin Kessel
 
 

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